Outline of Book

Detailed Outline of Book Introduction Theoretical Approaches Limitations of Previous Studies What’s in a Name Book Organization

Part One Society and Ideology Chapter 1: The Mexican Colony of South Texas Corpus Christi San Antonio Lower Rio Grande Valley Alice Demographic Upheaval in South Texas The Working Class The Mexico Texano Middle Class Middle-Class Women Racialization and Racial Violence Racial Segregation Education Political Disempowerment Conclusion


Chapter 2:  Ideological Origins of the Movement

From Mexican to Mexico Texano and Mexican American

The Mexican Revolution

Plan de San Diego and the South Texas Race War

Progressive Assault

The Americanization Movement

World War I

Immigration and the Increasing Significance of Citizenship

Creation of the “Mexican Problem”



 Part Two  Politics

Chapter 3: Rise of a Movement

Resistance to Racial Oppression

Mexican Consulate

Mutual Aid Societies

Gregorio Cortez Defense Network

Statewide Agrupacion Protectora Mexicana

Primer Congresso Mexicanista

Liga Protectora Mexicana in Austin

Order Sons of America in San Antonio

Splinter Organizations in San Antonio

OSA Expansion in South Texas

Order Sons of America in Corpus Christi

Order Sons of America in Alice

Order Knights of America in San Antonio

South Texas Lecture Tour


Chapter 4: Founding Fathers

Jose Tomas Canales

Jose de la Luz Saenz

Mauro Machado

Clemente M. Idar and Eduardo Idar Sr.

Manuel C. Gonzales

John Solis

James Tafolla Sr.

Alonso S. Perales

Andres De Luna Sr.

Bernardo F. Garza


Chapter 5: The Harlingen Convention of 1927: No Mexicans Allowed

The Harlingen Convention

Newspaper Coverage and Recollections of the Convention

Mexico Texano Leaders’ Accounts

 M.C. Gonzales’ Account

 J.T. Canales’ Account

 Eleuterio Escobar Jr.’s Account

Mexican Critics of the Exclusion

Critique of the Mexican Consulate

Two Explanations of the Exclusion

 Alonso Perales’ Explanation

 Eduardo Idar Sr.’s Explanation

Post-1929 Commentary on the Exclusion

Mexico Texano Hybridity

Citizenship, Nation, Race


Chapter 6:  LULAC’s Founding

Efforts Toward a Mexico Texano Merger

League of Latin American Citizens

Order Knights of America Facilitation of the Merger

LULAC’s Founding, February 1929

LULAC’s Constitutional Convention, May 1929

LULAC Constitution

OSA and LULAC Constitutions

LULAC Ritual

LULAC’s Growth and Reception

Scholar’s Commentaries


  Part Three Theory and Methodology

Chapter 7: The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement

Social Movements

Mexican American Civil Rights Movement

Benjamin Marquez’ Research on LULAC

A Social Movement Framework

Mobilization and Oratory

Movement Discourse


Chapter 8: No Women Allowed?

Women’s NonParticipation?

Construction of the Self as Political

 (includes Adela Sloss Vento, Adelaida Garza, and Carolina de Luna)

Women in the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement

Women’s Participation in Organizations

Women’s Segregation as Exclusion, Difference, or Strategy?

Gender, Citizenship, Nation, Empowerment, and LULAC

 (includes Emma Tenayuca and Maria L. Hernandez)


Concluding Chapter

Racial formation, Hybridity, and Identity

Citizenship, Nationalism, and Transnationalism



Resistance, Adaptation, and Whiteness

Gender, Homosociality, and Political Culture

The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement


Order Sons of America Declaration of Principles, 1922

Objectives and Aims of the Latin American Citizens League, circa 1927

Constitution, League of United Latin American Citizens, 1929

Endnotes  pp.241-298

Selected Bibliography  pp.299-307

Index  pp.309-316